Date and place of thesis defense:
18.07.2009. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
mr. sc. Sabahudin Jašarević
prof. dr. Safet Brdarević
Research on effects of introducing Quality Management System according to ISO 9000 requirements in organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The idea of quality is known through the history of development of human civilization. From the beginning of mankind and even now the quality is in the focus of human attention. In order to provide quality, there were used very various strategies and concepts, and therefore through the history it experienced various phases in its development.
Demands regarding achievement of competitive product and organization changed significantly in last several decades. The basis for competitive advantage of organization in global market can be very different: lower price, differentiation, certificate for management quality system, costs, delivery time, period from development to offer of the products in market, the newest technologies, etc. The thing which can determine product of one organization as better and more different is certainly the quality, which is exactly one of the ways of differentiation.
For the manufacturing organizations one of the main reasons for introduction of changes was certainly bigger and bigger competitiveness from Asian countries. With their cheap labour force, different working habits and specific culture they can produce cheaper products with more and more quality and thus take over markets from traditional industrial countries in Europe and America. That was exactly one of the main reasons for these countries to intensively introduce measures of rationalization and organizational changes which would enable surviving and development for them. All those efforts shaped various approaches in operating and managing with organizations, which we usually call manager's modules.
There are more concepts, approaches and management quality systems in organizations worldwide from which one of the most acceptable ones is the management quality system through satisfaction of demands defined by the standard from series of ISO 9000. So far, more than million organizations in the world have accepted this concept, where the most developed and most competitive countries, that is their organizations, of the world took over leading roles.
It has been already written a lot about need and advantages of introduction of the quality system. However, there is a question what have the organizations really achieved, that is what performances or effects have they achieved by introduction of quality system and acquiring of certificate? What happened in the organization itself? Do the organizations continue with improvement of their system through constant improvements or the certificate was used for directors only to be published in media? Various trade magazines on Web sites say about different opinions on usefulness of the introduced quality system. Some opinions are extremely negative while most of them are positive, and many experts think that a good application of standards from series of ISO 9000 (as well as other standards ISO 14000, ISO 18000, .) is the first step on the way towards business excellence.
After the war ended and with ten-year lagging behind rest of the world the Bosnian and Herzegovinian organizations started more intensively working on introduction of quality system according to demands of standards from series of ISO 9001:2000. This was especially intensified by the appearance of series from the year of 2000 that brought one new way of recognition of these problems.
That process lasts for about 12 years and B&H yet did not reach magic figure of 1000 certified organizations according to ISO 9001:2000. This figure was 660 by the end of year of 2007, that is a little bit more than 900 organizations by the end of 2008. Perhaps, considering all events in past 20 years it could be said that this is also good. However, if we look back at our neighbours who lived with us recently (Slovenia, Croatia and even Serbia) we cannot be satisfied completely.
Therefore, the main goal of conducted researches was to prove effects of introduction of the quality system according to demands of standard ISO 9001:2000 in Bosnian and Herzegovinian organizations.
The research was conducted by the method of triangulation of information received from certified organizations, consultants and certification houses, and the samples were made of 204 certified organizations (98 manufacturing and 106 service organizations), 31 consultants for introduction of quality system and 11 certification houses operating in the area of B&H.
With the assumption that organization has already got certificate for management quality system, this work analytically checked the following:
The research also established whether the following things were achieved by introduction of quality system:
- how much the B&H organizations really achieved by introduction and certification of the quality system, that is did they acquire better quality of products and services and did they become more successful in terms of business, and thus more competitive in the market,
- is the needed and expected situation, which was set ahead in the beginning of process of introduction of quality system, achieved,
- what are further activities and actions of the organizations in the area of quality and in the area of constant improvements,
As quality of business means social dimension, besides trade and business dimensions, this work also defines some pragmatic or social goals which speak about benefit that can come on the basis of results of research. They also speak about users who can use given results, and if possible determine way of usage of given results.
- improvement of financial results,
- satisfied employees,
- what quality suppliers have, and what is their influence on quality, and
- what are the interests of B&H organizations for introduction and participation in rewards for quality as a part of system on the way towards business excellence.
This research identified effects-benefits achieved by organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and which above all refer to the introduced quality systems, and also to the quality of products and services in organizations themselves. Also, there are certain problems coming from things that could not be recognized enough as the effect. This identification of positive and "less positive" effects can be useful to personnel in organizations for their adjustment and direction towards less positive effects, without neglecting the work and advancement on what was good.
For the organizations that start with introduction of quality system the research can be a good road sign for directing to those directions in which organizations expressed less positive results, while for the state organs and nongovernmental associations that operate with issues of quality the research can be used as an assistance for making policy and strategy in the area of quality on the state level and for undertaking of needed measures for advancement of quality in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Key words: Quality, Quality Systems, ISO 9000, Effects, Organizations, Competitiveness, Continuous Improvement